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 " ", ' (Stanly) ' ' . ( The New Evolutionary Timetable, 1981 ' 77, ' ).

, , ' ' : " , : 1. - . 2. - ; ". (S. J. Gould, The Panda`s Thumb, Viking Penguin, 1980, p. 151).

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 ' ' (Gould) ' : " .. .. ", (The Panda's Tumb, 1980 ' 150-1, ' . ).

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(: 43 , 42 !). , (Simpson, G.G 1953, "The Major Freatores of evolution" N.Y. Columbia University Press).

. (Ager), , : " , , - , ." (Derek V. Ager, "The Nature of the Fossil Record" Proceedings of the British Geological Association, Vol 87, 1976 p. 133.).

, (Czarnecki), : : " ; . . , , - ." (Mark Czarnecki, "The Revival of the Creationist Crusade", MacLean's, January 19, 1981, p. 56.).

  (Wesson) " " 1991: " .. , . .. , . , , - , ." (R. Wesson, Beyond Natural Selection, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1991, p. 45).

" ' ' : " , , , ", ( ' 140).

" : , , ( ) .. : ", ( , ' 24).

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(Mark Ridley, Who Doubts Evolution?, New Scientist, Vol 90, No. 1259 (June 25, 1981), pp. 830-832 (quote from p. 831 emphasis added).

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" , , . .. . ", (' , , ' 78).

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: L. orgel, "The Origin of Life the Earth", scientific American 11 October 1994; J. Rebek, Jr., ‘Synthetic Self-Replicating Molecules', scientific American November 1992; C. DeDuve, Blueprint for a cell, Neil Patterson Publishers, Burlington NC 1990, ( , ' 49).

, Histon H4 305 306 , ' 1.5 . . .

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" " 2000 " : " " " ." -, . " " - - (The New Animal Phylogeny: Reliability And Implications, Proc. of Natl. Aca. of Sci., 25 April 2000, vol 97, No 9, p. 4453-4456.).

, " " , (cnidarians) (ctenophores) , " " : ) ( - . "" , , , - " -".. -. , "" , " " "" (The New Animal Phylogeny: Reliability And Implications, Proc. of Nat. Aca. of Sci., 25 April 2000, vol 97, No 9, p. 4453-4456.).

( ) , - : - , . , . . 140 , .

' . (Todd) : ' ': " - . , . ? ? ? ?" (Gerald T. Todd, "Evolution of the Lung and the Origin of Bony Fishes: A Casual Relationship", American Zoologist, Vol 26, No. 4, 1980, p. 757). .

(Colbert) (Morales) - - , , ) ): " - . , ." (Edwin H. Colbert, M. Morales, Evolution of the Vertebrates, New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1991, p. 99.).

, , , , 410 , , , , . 22 1938 . , . , '...  (J.L.B. Smith) : " , ". (Jean-Jacques Hublin, The Hamlyn Encyclopedia of Prehistoric Animals, New York: The Hamlyn Publishing Group Ltd., 1984, p. 120.), . . . (Jacques Millot, "The Coelacanth", Scientific American, Vol 193, December 1955, p. 39) , " ", 180 . (Bilim ve Teknik Magazine, November 1998, No: 372, p. 21).

"", , - . 1951 Neopilina galatheac 500 , . Vampyroteuthis infernalis . 70 , .

. (Carroll), -, : ' ': " -, ". , " ", 1997, " - , )( , ' ' , ." (R. L. Carroll, Vertebrate Paleontology and Evolution New York: W. H. Freeman and Co. 1988, p. 4.; Robert L. Carroll Patterns and Processes of Vertebrate Evolution, Cambridge University Press, 1997, p. 296-97).

( 8 ') 40 (Graham Heathcote, Oldest Reptile Found; Owner Aims to Sell It, Associated Press dispatch from London, The Arizona Republic, Vol. 99, No. 186 (Phoenix: November 20, 1988), p. AA-4 ).

 

, . 1992 , (Nature, Vol 382, August, 1, 1996, p. 401.), (Carl O. Dunbar, Historical Geology, New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1961, p. 310.) , . , , ("" (Tauraco) "" ((Hoatzin). , . , '.. (Steward) .. (Whetstone), , . , (Theropod) , (. L. D. Martin, J. D. Stewart, K. N. Whetstone, The Auk Vol 98, 1980, p. 86 ). , ( L. D. Martin, "Origins of Higher Groups of Tetrapods", Ithaca, New York: Comstock Publising Association, 1991, pp. 485, 540. ).

  . (Tarsitano), .. (Hecht), .. (Walker), ' (Ostrom) , . ( S. Tarsitano, M. K. Hecht, Zoological Journal of the Linnaean Society, Vol 69, 1985, p. 178; A. D. Walker, Geological Magazine, Vol 177, 1980, p. 595).

1995 , (Lianhai Hou) (Zhonghe Zhou), " -" "" (Confuciusornis).. , , . . ("" (pygostyle : , (Pat Shipman, "Birds do it... Did Dinosaurs?", New Scientist, February 1, 1997, p. 31.).

1996, 130 "" (Liaoningornis). . (L.Hou). (Martin), (Feduccia) , . ("Old Bird", Discover, March 21, 1997). "" : " ? - ". ().

, - . ... , , , , - , , ... 150 (.Robert L. Carroll, Patterns and Processes of Vertebrate Evolution, Cambridge University Press, 1997, p. 280-81.).

, , " 100% , ". , , 100% .

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  , . , , -: ", 25 -. . ..., , 20. (Pat Shipman, "Birds Do It... Did Dinosaurs?", p. 28) (Jonathan Wells, Icons of Evolution, Regnery Publishing, 2000, p. 117).

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:

  • Michael Denton, Evolution: A Theory in Crisis (Bethesda, Maryland: Adler & Adler, Publishers, 1986), 368 pp.
  • Luther D. Sunderland, Darwin's Enigma: Fossils and Other Problems (El Cajon, California: Master Book Publishers, 1984), pp. 69-76.
  • Francis Hitching, The Neck of the Giraffe: Where Darwin Went Wrong (New Haven: Connecticut: Ticknor and Fields, 1982), pp. 34-36 (Shows that every one of its supposed reptilian features can be found in various species of undoubted birds).
  • Colin Brown, Another Look at the Archaeopteryx, Creation Research Society Quarterly, Vol. 17, No. 2 (1980), pp. 87, 109.
  • Frank W. Cousins, The Alleged Evolution of Birds, in Donald W. Patten, editor, A Symposium on Creation III (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House, 1971), pp. 89-99.

:

Sankar Chatterjee, "Cranial Anatomy and Relationships of a New Triassic Bird from Texas," Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Vol. 332B, No. 1265 (June 29, 1991), pp. 277-342

Anonymous, "Fossil Revisionism," Scientific American, Vol. 255, No. 4 (1986), pp. 84-89.]

[Tim Beardsley, Fossil Bird Shakes Evolutionary Hypotheses, Nature, Vol. 322, No. 6081 (August 21-27, 1986), p. 677

 

'' (Simpson), , : " , . , , , , , - ." (George Gaylord Simpson, Life Before Man, New York: Time-Life Books, 1972, p. 42).

' (Lewin), : " , , , ". (Roger Lewin, "Bones of Mammals, Ancestors Fleshed Out", Science, vol 212, June 26, 1981, p. 1492.).

  , . , , , , . , . (Lombard) - : '': " , ". ( Eric Lombard, "Review of Evolutionary Principles of the Mammalian Middle Ear, Gerald Fleischer", Evolution, Vol 33, December 1979, p. 1230.).

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Phillip E. Johnson, Darwin on Trial (Downers Grove, Illinois: InterVarsity Press, 1991), pp. 77-78 (emphasis added

Tom Kemp, The Reptiles that Became Mammals, New Scientist, Vol. 92, No. 4 (March 4, 1982), p. 583 (emphasis added

Roger Lewin, Bones of Mammals' Ancestors Fleshed Out, Science, Vol. 212, No. 4502 (June 26, 1981), p. 1492 (emphasis added). (" ").

:

Luther D. Sunderland, Darwin's Enigma: Fossils and Other Problems, 4th edition (Santee, California: Master Books, 1988) (emphasis added

Francis Hitching, The Neck of the Giraffe or Where Darwin Went Wrong (Bergenfield, New Jersey: Penguin Books, 1982), p. 19

David B. Kitts, Paleontology and Evolutionary Theory, Evolution, Vol. 28 (September 1974), p. 467 (emphasis added

David M. Raup, Conflicts Between Darwin and Paleontology, Field Museum of Natural History, Vol. 50, No. 1 (January 1979), p. 22 (emphasis added

Luther D. Sunderland, Darwin's Enigma: Fossils and Other Problems, 4th edition (Santee, California: Master Books, 1988), p. 9 (emphasis added).]

Colin Patterson in a British Broadcasting Corporation television program (March 4, 1982) (emphasis added) - as cited in The Quote Book (Australia: Answers in Genesis), p. 12

90% , 10% . .

William H. Matthews, III, Fossils (New York: Barnes and Noble, Inc., 1982), p. 8

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W.B. Harland, et al, The Fossil Record (London: Geological Society of London, 196

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(Australopithecus)

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(Homo sapiens)

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, , ' (Leakey) . ' (Johanson), ' . , - ", (Zuckerman) ' (Oxnard), -.. 15 , , , -. (Solly Zuckerman, Beyond The Ivory Tower, New York: Toplinger Publications, 1970, pp. 75-94.). , ' . , - (Charles E. Oxnard, "The Place of Australopithecines in Human Evolution: Grounds for Doubt", Nature, Vol 258, p. 389.).

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, "" , , . 80 , (Wood) . (Brace), , , " ", . , . . . , 600 " . , . OH62 - (White) , . ". 1994, : " , - . -." (Holly Smith, American Journal of Physical Antropology, Vol 94, 1994, pp. 307-325).

, (Spoor), , (Zonneveld), , . , -, - . :

- , . , (Paranthropus) ." , Stw 53, Stw 53 - . . , Stw 53 - (Fred Spoor, Bernard Wood, Frans Zonneveld, "Implication of Early Hominid Labryntine Morphology for Evolution of Human Bipedal Locomotion", Nature, vol 369, June 23, 1994, p. 645-648).

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1972 (Homo Rudolfensis) 2.8 , " ". , , . ' (Bromage) , 1992 , . , -, ". ( Tim Bromage, New Scientist, vol 133, 1992, p. 38-41.). (J. E. Cronin, N. T. Boaz, C. B. Stringer, Y. Rak, "Tempo and Mode in Hominid Evolution", Nature, Vol 292, 1981, p. 113- 122 . C. L. Brace, H. Nelson, N. Korn, M. L. Brace, Atlas of Human Evolution, 2.b. New York: Rinehart and Wilson, 1979.). , , 1999 (Bernard Wood, Mark Collard, "The Human Genus", Science, vol 284, No 5411, 2 April 1999, p. 65-71) .

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, . (900 "). '. , (Marvin Lubenow, Bones of Contention, Grand Rapids, Baker, 1992, p. 83.).

  , , (Nariokotome Homo erectus) " " (Turkana Boy), . 12 , 1.83 . . - (Walker) " ." (yce Rensberger, The Washington Post, November 19, 1984). , . ". (, Richard Leakey, The Making of Mankind, London Sphere Books, 1981, p. 62.). (Laughlin) ) (, (Sinanthropus) ] [ . (Marvin Lubenow, Bones of Contention, Grand Rapids, Baker, 1992. p. 136.).

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, , , - ' , (Erik Trinkaus, "Hard Times Among the Neanderthals", Natural History, vol 87, December 1978, p. 10; R. L. Holloway, "The Neanderthal Brain: What Was Primitive", American Journal 210), , , .

" .. .. ", (. . Scientific American 1979 241 ' 99, ""). ( 2008).

" , , . . .. ' .. , , ' ", ( , ' 192).

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, , , . . 4 . , 1.7 1.9 . "" , 2.5 2.8 ! , " ". , 1.6 , , .

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, , , II.. (A. J. Kelso, Physical Antropology, 1st ed., New York: J.B. Lipincott Co., 1970, p. 221; M. D. Leakey, Olduvai Gorge, Vol 3, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1971, p. 272).

' (Gould), : : " ). , , (, ? , ." (S. J. Gould, Natural History, Vol 85, 1976, p. 30.).

, 27,000 13,000 (Time, November 1996).

- ( ), (L. S. B. Leakey, The Origin of Homo Sapiens, ed. F Borde, Paris: UNESCO, 1972, p. 25-29; L. S. B. Leakey, By the Evidence, New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1974. ). , , (A. J. Kelso, Physical Anthropology, 1.b., 1970, pp. 221; M. D. Leakey, Olduvai Gorge, Vol 3, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1971, p. 272.) 1995 "" 11 800,000 , (Ferreras), : " - " ("Is This The Face of Our Past", Discover, December 1997, p. 97-100. ). 1997 37 3.6 , ' . (Donald C. Johanson & M. A. Edey, Lucy: The Beginnings of Humankind, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1981, p. 250.) (Science News, Vol 115, 1979, p. 196-197., Ian Anderson, New Scientist, Vol 98, 1983, p. 373., Russell H. Tuttle, Natural History, March 1990, p. 61-64.), , .

, , (') . , ( ) " (. , , 191).

 " 1972 , , . 1973-1976 . , , , " ( 192).

" .. .. .. .. 70 , . , , , , - , 35 70 .. ' ", ( . ' ' ', ' 190-1).

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, . . . (Pilbeam), , : " , , - . , ". (David R. Pilbeam, "Rearranging Our Family Tree", Nature, June 1978, p. 40.).

  . (Hooten): : . , , " , . . ... ". (Earnest A. Hooton, Up From The Ape, New York: McMillan, 1931, p. 332).

" , ", (Gould, SJ, "The Panda's Thumb" , 1980, p.126) ( : , , ).

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(Gee), "'", . In Search of Deep Time, 1999 10 5 - - ". " , ". , " - , , ." (Henry Gee, In Search of Time: Beyond the Fossil Record to a New History of Life, New York, The Free Press, 1999, p. 126-127.).

(Zuckerman) , . , . " ", . , "" - , , . , . , " " , " -" - " ", - , " ". : " , - , , - -." (Solly Zuckerman, Beyond The Ivory Tower, New York: Toplinger Publications, 1970, p. 19. ).

( 1912, 500,000 , 40 500 ( - Malcolm Muggeridge, The End of Christendom, Grand Rapids, Eerdmans, 1980, p. 59). ). - . - (Clark) , : " . - ", (Stephen Jay Gould, "Smith Woodward's Folly", New Scientist, April 5, 1979, p. 44.).

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1922, , , " , (Nebraska man). " : Hesperopithecus haroldcookii., , , . , . (Bryan) . , .

  

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1927 . . "Prosthennops". , " (Hesperopithecus haroldcookii). "" (. K. Gregory, "Hesperopithecus Apparently Not An Ape Nor A Man", Science, Vol 66, December 1927, p. 579.209 ).

1904 - . , "". , - " " " ", . , " " - " " , , - . ' . (Hornaday), , , " " , - . , . (Philips Verner Bradford, Harvey Blume, Ota Benga The Pygmy in The Zoo, New York: Delta Books, 1992).

  

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